- Mustafa Hilmi Çolakoğlu — email@example.com
- Özlem Kalkan — firstname.lastname@example.org
About the institution
Vocational and technical education in Turkey is provided by online modules beginning with the Project for Strengthening Vocational and Technical Education (SVTE) since 2005. Occupational analysis, occupational standards, national and international classifications, legislative and other reference documents have been used as resources in determining the areas where students will be educated in vocational and technical education. Currently, vocational training is offered in 54 fields. In vocational and technical education, formal and non-formal education is provided in order to enable the students to receive education in accordance with their possibilities. Vocational open education high schools have been established in order to meet the vocational training needs of individuals expelled from the process while informal education wishing to acquire an alternative profession after compulsory education age. Student admissions to vocational high schools may vary according to the type of school and the fields and branches to be selected. Student transitions among school types and programs and transfers among schools can be made under certain conditions. Each student is provided with a degree according to type of school, program, field, and branch s/he completed. In 2017- 2018 academic year, a total of 5,689,427 students received education in secondary education. 1,987,282 of these students are in vocational and technical secondary education. The formal education given within the scope of vocational and technical education is carried out in three types of schools: Vocational and Technical Anatolian High Schools, Multi-program Anatolian High Schools, and Vocational Education Centers. Vocational and technical education within the scope of non-formal education is given in Vocational Open Education High Schools. Educational processes vary according to school types.
Evaluating independently from the fields, 55.60% of vocational education graduates are males and 44.40% are females. There are differences in gender distribution to fields in terms of employment conditions and occupational conditions. Occupational fields where the rate of male students are 90% or more are as follows: Metal Technology, Metallurgy, Installation Technology and Air Conditioning, Motor Vehicle Technology, Electrical-Electronics Technology, Aircraft Maintenance, Furniture and Interior Design, Shipbuilding, Machine Technology Industrial Automation Technologies, Rail Systems Technology, and Maritime and Agriculture. Occupational fields where the rate of female students are 90% or more are as follows: Child Development and Education, Handicraft Technology, Family and Consumer Services, Patient and Elderly Services, Beauty and Hair Care Services, Clothing Manufacturing Technology, and Graphics and Photography.
There are 54 Fields in VET Education, in terms of technical education there are numerous fields, such as information technologies, industrial automation technologies, shipbuilding, construction technology, and machine technology.
Number of students and graduates of vocational and technical secondary education is an important indicator of the demand in this area. The number of teachers and schools/institutions provides information regarding the steps taken to raise the efficiency and quality of vocational and technical education. The change in the number of students, teachers and schools in vocational and technical secondary education institutions over the years has been shown in Figure 2. There have been changes in the number of students in terms of increase and decrease in the ten-year period from the 2008-2009 academic year to 2018- 2019 academic year. Despite the increase between 2008-2009 and 2014-2015, the number of students has started to decline since 2014-2015 and decreased to the lowest level of the last five years in 2018-2019. The continuous increase in the number of teachers in the ten year period is regarded as an important factor increasing the quality of vocational and technical education. Figure 2 shows that the proportion of students per teacher in vocational and technical secondary education for the 2008-2009 academic year is approximately 17, which has declined in 2018-2019 to about 11. Therefore, teacher-student interaction in vocational and technical secondary education has been enhanced, hence students have been provided with an education that is more qualified.